recipe

You Say Salami, I say Salumi – Let’s Make Sausage!

Daring Cooks
February 2013

I am Carol, a non-blogging member from Canada and I have been a member of the Daring Kitchen since January 2009…. And I am Jenni, and I blog at The Gingered Whisk! I have been a member of the Daring Kitchen since June 2009. This challenge evolved rather organically. Carol was doing a book review on “Salumi”, and Jenni sent Lisa an email saying that “someone” should do a challenge on making your own sausage. The timing was just too perfect, and so we decided to combine the book review and the sausage making into one awesome challenge! We are both really excited to bring this challenge to you – we feel this is a great technique to know how to do, and not only is it fairly easy, but is very rewarding.

Download the printable .pdf file HERE

Sausages evolved as a way to preserve meat in order to make it last longer – smoking, curing in salt, and drying it in. Early sausages were simply roasted intestines stuffed into stomachs. It is difficult to pinpoint exactly when sausages and cured meats were invented, but it is known that the early Grecians made and ate sausages (there are references to them in The Oddessy – In book 18 a type of blood sausage is mentioned: “there are some goats’ paunches down at the fire, which we have filled with blood and fat, and set aside for supper; he who is victorious and proves himself to be the better man shall have his pick of the lot.”) Most food cultures offer some form of sausage making, and the climate in each area had an effect on how a culture prepared its sausage – to eat it fresh, hang to dry or smoke it. Typically when you think of sausage you think of European countries – Kielbasa from Poland, Bangers from England (which get their name from their tight casing which often breaks during cooking, Haggis from Scotland (simmered stomach filled with chopped organs, suet, and spices) etc., but other countries have forms of sausages, too. Korea has Sundae, which is a traditional form of blood sausage made my steaming or boiling stuffed pig or cow intestines. Isan sausages from Thailand are fermented and then grilled. There are literally hundreds of different varieties of sausages (see this website to see listings from various other countries)

Sausages can be made from just about anything and they do not necessarily have to be stuffed either. Sausages can be combinations of vegetables, rice, meat, eggs or even blood. They can be patties, or stuffed into casings, natural or synthetic, or wrapped in leaves, wrappers or dough. Indeed, you can cure whole muscles and slice as you would sausage. Sausage making is incredibly satisfying as you often take inexpensive cuts of meat and add some fat, seasonings and create satisfying soul food.

There are three basic types of sausage – dry (which have been hung to dry and cure), semi-dry (which have been cured via smoking) and fresh (which are cooked and then eaten immediately). For the purposes of this challenge, we looked at 3 variations of sausages making – whole muscle curing, cured sausages and fresh sausages. For the novice, perhaps the easiest venture into the work of Salume is to cure whole muscle. It is the most forgiving and does not require special equipment or a wide range of ingredients. It relies on time to cure the meat and make it edible. Generally, you are looking for the muscle to be cured for a period of time, and then hung to dry until it loses 30% of its weight.

Fresh sausage is ground meat or vegetables that have been combined with seasonings and are meant to be cooked. Generally speaking, you need to fry, sauté, grill, poach or bake this sausage until it reaches an internal temperature of about 155°F/68°C for pork and 165°F/73°C for chicken or turkey. Sausages also benefit from a rest period like meat, so remove your sausage when the internal temperature is about 5 degrees lower than you want it to be. There is a tendency to overcook sausage, i.e. over 200°F/93°C until the interior is grainy and dry – but what you are looking for is a moist, tender interior.

Finally, cured sausage is the most challenging for chefs and home chefs alike, as the technique relies on several variables that are difficult to control at best – ambient air and humidity. The key ingredient to curing sausage is salt. It also allows us to take raw meat and render it edible without the benefit of direct heat. To make this sausage is perhaps the most satisfying as it is truly magical to take raw meat, ferment it, dry it, slice it thin and eat it. There is a part of your genetic memory that kicks in and revels in the glory of eating the tangy cured, uncooked meat.

Contest!!!
The wonderful people at WW Norton publishing company are sponsoring a contest for this challenge! The top 3 most delicious sausages and/or salumi will win a copy of Michael Ruhlman’s and Brian Polcyn’s book, Salumi: The Craft of Italian Dry Curing!
Carol, Jenni and Lisa will choose the winners and announce them at the top of the March Daring Cooks’ challenge announcement. We will also e-mail the winners, so please make sure that your profile pages are updated with your most recent e-mail address, please. Smile

Recipe Sources:
●Home Sausage Making: How-to Techniques for Making and Enjoying 100 Sausages at Home: 3rd Edition. Susan Mahnke Peery and Charles G. Reavis. Published by Storey Books in 2003.
●Charcuterie, Michael Ruhlman and Brian Polcyn, W.W. Norton 2005
●The Complete Book of Butchering, Smoking, Curing and Sausage Making: How to Harvest Your Own Livestock and Wild Game. Phillip Hasheider, 2010.
●Ratio: The Simple Codes Behind the Craft of Everyday Cooking. Michael Ruhlman, 2009
●Salumi: The Craft of Italian Dry Curing, Michael Ruhlman and Brian Polycn, W.W. Norton 2012.

Blog-checking lines: For the January-February 2013 Daring Cooks’ Challenge, Carol, one of our talented non-blogging members and Jenni, one of our talented bloggers who writes The Gingered Whisk, have challenged us to make homemade sausage and/or cured, dried meats in celebration of the release of the book Salumi: The Craft of Italian Dry Curing by Michael Ruhlman and Brian Polcyn! We were given two months for this challenge and the opportunity to make delicious Salumi in our own kitchens!

Posting Date: February 14, 2013

Notes:
There is so much good information on sausage making out on the internet and available in cookbooks, we thought it best to give you an abbreviated version in the form of general notes.

***Notes on Safety: Think Clean, Cold, and Covered. We really, really, really don’t want anyone to get sick!!
●Take extra care to make sure that your ingredients do not cross contaminate each other, or other food.
●ALL containers, utensils and surfaces need to be scrubbed with hot water and detergent before coming into contact with the raw meat. Wooden cutting boards need to be disinfected with 1 tablespoon bleach in 1 gallon (4 litres) of water. Rinse everything thoroughly and allow to air dry and cool down before staring (residual heat from warm utensils could encourage the growth of bacteria). Also be sure you pick a cool day (or turn on your AC) to under 70°F/21° when you are making your sausages.
●Remove all of your rings, and wash your hands very carefully and thoroughly. (including under your fingernails!). Really, scrub the crap out of them. If you step away for a second, you must wash your hands again before you start. Also wear a clean apron to make sure that 1). nothing comes off of your clothes and contaminates the meat or 2). the meat doesn’t contaminate or stain your clothes.
●Having your mis en place is really important here, because you want to work quickly so the meat doesn’t have a chance to warm up. All the utensils should be out and on the counter, all the ingredients measured and ready to go. This will also help to keep your cabinets, utensils, and the rest of your kitchen clean because everything you need is already on the counter and ready to use.
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Notes on Salumi:
●Meat
○Try to source your meat locally – i.e from farmers as opposed to factory hogs from the local grocery store. This will ensure that your meat is fresher.
●Curing Environment:
○To create conditions to successfully dry meat and cure salami, the ambient humidity should be between 60 and 70 percent
○The temperature should remain between 55 and 65 °F/12 and 18°C.
○The air needs to be able to circulate
○Successful curing environments include wine coolers, mini refrigerators, home-built curing boxes…garages…and my basement.

Notes on Sausages:
●Equipment:
○Grinders: Can use hand-grinders (old fashioned cast iron hand crank types), electric grinders, mixer attachment, or food processors (be careful not to over process it by just making a paste – use short pulses)
○Stuffers: handheld funnels (called sausage funnels), push stuffer, crank stuffer, mixer attachment or hand stuffing.
●Ingredients:
○Meat and fat: you can use a single source or a blending of meats. It is important to get the correct ratio of meat to fat and salt. You have to have fat and salt to get a good tasting sausage. Generally speaking, the rule is “3 parts meat, 1 part fat.”. This means that about 30% of sausage should be fat. However, you might need to adjust your fat if you are using a lean meat like venison or chicken. The best fat to use is pork back fat.
○Herbs: using the freshest herbs possible is best. Do NOT use the dried herbs that have been sitting on the shelf for years.
○Salt: kosher (rock crystal) or sea salt is best because the additives in table salt can leave funny flavors (never use iodized).
○Binders: things like bread-crumbs, dry milk powder, soy protein, wine, cider, etc are used to sometimes increase the moisture content or to give a particular texture.
○Fruits and veggies can add good flavor and moisture content
●Casings:
○Natural casings need to be soaked and rinsed to remove the salt it is packed in.
■Sheep casings (smallest diameter) are best for hot dogs and breakfast links.
■Hog casings are good for bratwurst, and Italian sausage – they are all purpose.
■Beef: Tend to be tough, usually peeled and discarded before eating. Good for bologna and salami.
■Collagen casings are made from an edible protein derived from connective tissue and mechanically formed into casings. They do not stretch, so you must be careful. Do not rinse these, they are easier to work with when dry.
○Artificial casings are uniform in size and easy to use. They are not edible, and they must be peeled away before eating.
■Cellulose and plastic are great for vegans and for sausages cooked in water and steam (like frankfurters)
■Muslin casings are used for larger salamis and summer sausages. Need to be sewn up.

Prepare your casings. (The following instructions are for natural casings packaged in salt. If you are using alternative casings, please follow the directions included with them).
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○Snip off about 4 feet (1-1/3 metre) of casing and rinse under cool running water to remove any salt. Place the casings in a bowl of cool water and allow to soak for 30 minutes.
○Rinse the casing again under cool running water. Hold one end of the casing open under the faucet nozzle to allow water to run inside the casing to wash out any salt inside, and to find any rips or holes in the casing (If you find a hole/tear, simply cut out that section).
Frankfurters 2
○Soak the casing again in clean, cool water with 1 tablespoon of white vinegar for each cup of water in the bowl. This will help to soften the casings and make them more transparent (and give a prettier finished product).
○Leave the casing in the water until you are ready to stuff it, then rinse and drain one final time.

Preparing the Sausage:
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●Cut the meat and fat into uniform 1” (2-1/2 cm) cubes.
●Place the meat and fat in freezer for 30 minutes before grinding to firm up the texture (this helps the meat not to smear as you grind it).
Frankfurters 1
●Grind the meat, using either your hand crank, mixer attachment, or food processor.
●Toss the seasonings in with the meat, using your hands to mix it completely.
●Freeze again for 30 minutes to firm up the meat
●Grind again
Frankfurters 3
●Test the spices by frying a small portion up
●adjust the seasoning if needed

Stuffing the Casing:
●If you are using a sausage funnel or hand grinder funnel you will need to coat the funnel with water or grease it, then draw the end of the casing over the funnel so it is firmly in place.
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●Push the ground meat through the funnel or feed spout with the end of a wooden spoon until it reaches the lip of the funnel opening.
●Pull about 2 inches (5 cm) of casing off the end of the funnel and tie a knot.
●Continue feeding small amounts of the mixture through the funnel, until the whole casing is filled. Pack the casings firmly but to not the bursting point. Tie another not at the end and slide the casing off the funnel.
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●Inspect the length of the filled sausages, looking for any air bubbles or pockets. Using a small pin, prick any air bubbles you see. Air pockets can fill with fat during cooking, or allow mold to grow in dried sausages.
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●Twist the sausages. Beginning at the tied end of the stuffed casing, grasp about 3inches (7-1/2 cm) of sausage and gently give it two or three twists in one direction to form a link. Continue twisting links, alternating the twist direction, until the whole casing is done.
Frankfurters 4
●Do not cut the links apart at this time, you must first parboil, smoke, or dry them.
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Fresh Sausages: (cook before eating)
●Allow the flavors to meld by arranging the links in a single layer on a platter, cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least a few hours if not overnight.
Storage: These will last in the fridge for 2 days. You can also wrap the links individually in plastic wrap, place them in a freezer plastic bag and keep them for 2-3 months in the freezer.
Cooking: Should be cooked slowly and thoroughly on moderate heat, until it reaches temperature. (Beef, lamb, pork, fish and wild game: 160°F or 71°C) and poultry (165°F or 74°C). A rule of thumb is to cook it 20 minutes for 1 inch (2-1/2 cm) diameter.
■Should be browned evenly on all sides. Poultry and seafood cook faster, about 10-15 minutes. Wild game tends to be a bit dryer, so don’t overcook.
■Don’t overcook them or cook them too hot. If the casing splits, it will release the great juices and flavorings.
Preserving Sausages: Use only hardwoods like hickory, oak, apple, maple, or chestnut, for smoking (other things like corn cobs or damp sawdust can be used, but never ever softwoods like pine, spruce, fir and cypress. They create oily, sooty smoke that will turn the sausages dark and bitter).

●Dried Sausages: Need to be hung up to dry, never cooked. Best is 40°F/4°C with 75-80% humidity. Some people find using their attic in the winter to be ideal, others use a spare refrigerator (with all but the top shelf removed)
●Semi Dry Sausages need to be smoked. You can do this either by cold or hot smoking.
○Cold Smoke is basically a flavoring process, it is still essentially raw. These have usually been cured by another means (sodium nitrate, salt, or hanging them up to dry).
○Hot Smoked to 175°F/80°C. This cooks the meat while imparting a smoky flavor, fixes the color and makes the protein move to the surface of the sausage so it will hold its shape when the casings are removed. These are as perishable as any roasted meat.
■Smoking in a covered charcoal grill: Make sure you have an oven thermometer to monitor the temperature. Placing a pan of water amongst the hot briquettes helps to generate steam. Don’t use gasoline or accelerators to start the fire, they will contaminate the sausage.

Vegetarian/Vegan Sausages:
Sausages do NOT have to be meat based! Cooked beans, legumes, rice, grains, tofu, or soy products all work well as the “base” for sausages, and you can add a variety of fruits and vegetables. Generally you will have to add some sort of moistener or binder, and these can include eggs, egg whites, butter, oil, wine, cider, etc. Thickeners can be breadcrumbs, flour, oats, wheat germ, etc. For casings, you can either use a synthetic plastic, cabbage leaves, chard leaves, corn husks, outer layer of leeks, Phyllo dough, tortillas, parchment paper, foil, plastic wrap, etc. Really, you are only limited by your imagination! These tend to cook quickly, and are very delicate, so try not to manhandle them.

One Final Note:
Sausage making is not for the faint hearted – its takes time and patience – so judge yourself accordingly and you will truly enjoy this challenge!

Mandatory Items: You must choose to either cure a whole muscle or to make a sausage (or both!). You must start with a whole protein source (ie, don’t buy pre-ground meat to make a sausage).

Variations allowed: You may use any meat, meat combination, or protein source that you choose. Because of diets and other factors, you may also use any casing type you choose.

Preparation time:
Time is dependent on the type of muscle you cure or sausage you make. Please see individual recipes below for their prep times.

Equipment required:
A variety of equipment is required depending on the type of sausage you make. Please see individual recipes below for a list of what equipment is needed.

Fresh Sausage
Recipe source: Charcuterie
Prep Time: 24 hours to chill, 1 hour to make, give or take.
Equipment needed: Bowls, Cookie Sheet, Digital Scale, Meat Grinder, Spatula, and Frying Pan to test sample

The Master Recipe

Ingredients
5 lb/2¼ kg boneless fatty pork shoulder butt, diced
3 tablespoons (45 ml) (45 gm) (1½ oz) kosher (rock crystal) salt
1 tablespoon (15 ml) (10 gm) (1/3 oz) ground black pepper
3 tablespoons (55 gm) (2 oz) minced garlic
1 cup (240 ml) good red wine, chilled
10 feet/3 meters hog casings, soaked in tepid water for a least 30 minutes and rinse

Directions:
1Toss meat, salt, pepper and garlic together in a large bowl until evenly mixed. Cover and refrigerate until mixture is thoroughly chilled up to 24 hours.
2Grind mixture through the small die of your meat grinder in a bowl set in ice.
3Using paddle attachment, or a wooden spoon, mix on low speed for a about a minute. Add wine, increase speed to medium and mix or stir for another minute or until the liquid is incorporated and the meat looks sticky.
4Fry a bite size portion of the sausage and taste it – refrigerate your meat mixture while you do this – and adjust seasonings as necessary
5Stuff sausage into the hog casings and twist into 6-inch/15 centimeter links.
6Cook sausage to an internal temperature of 150° F/65°C.
7Refrigerate sausages up to 2 weeks or freeze until ready to use..

Mexican Chorizo
349
Recipe Source: Charcuterie
Preparation Time: about 2 hours, give or take
Equipment Needed: Large Bowl, Measuring Spoons and Cups, Meat Grinder or Food Processor, Wooden Spoon, Frying Pan, and Sausage Stuffer

Ingredients
5 lbs (2¼ kg) boneless fatty pork shoulder butt, diced
3 tablespoons (45 ml) (45 gm) (1½ oz) kosher (rock crystal) salt
2 tablespoons (30ml) (15 gm) (½ oz) ancho chile powder
1 tablespoon (8 gm) hot paprika
1 tablespoon (8 gm) chipotle chile powder or cayenne powder
1 teaspoon (5ml) (3 gm) freshly ground black pepper
1 tablespoon (6 gm) chopped fresh oregano or 1 teaspoon (½ gm)dried oregano
½ teasponn (1½ gm) ground cumin
3 tablespoons (45 ml) tequila, chilled
3 tablespoons (45 ml) red wine vinegar, chilled
10 feet/3 meters hog casings, soaked in tepid water for a least 30 minutes and rinse

Directions:
1Combine all the ingredients except the tequila and the vinegar and toss to distribute the seasoning. Chill.
2Grind mixture through the small die of your meat grinder in a bowl set in ice.
3Add tequila and vinegar to eh meat mixture and mix with the paddle attachment or a sturdy spoon until liquid is incorporated and meat mixture looks sticky.
4Fry a bite size portion of the sausage and taste it – refrigerate your meat mixture while you do this – and adjust seasonings as necessary
5Stuff sausage into the hog casings and twist into 6-inch/15 centimeter links.
6Cook sausage to an internal temperature of 150°F/65°C.
7Refrigerate sausages up to 2 weeks or freeze until ready to use.

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Baked Cod with Fresh Chorizo Vinaigrette

Andouille Sausage – Hot Smoked
346Recipe Source: Charcuterie
Preparation Time: an hour and a half to make, 2 hours to hang, several hours to smoke (depending on temperature and amount of sausage you are smoking), 1 hour to chill in ice bath
Equipment Needed: Large Bowls, Measuring Cups and Spoons, Meat Grinder or Food Processor, Wooden Spoon, Frying Pan, Sausage Stuffer, Smoke Stick (or a clean metal or wooden dowel), a grill to smoke

Ingredients
5 lbs (2¼ kg) boneless fatty pork shoulder butt, diced
3 tablespoons (45 ml) (45 gm) (1½ oz) kosher (rock crystal) salt
2 teaspoons (10 ml) (6 gm) cayenne pepper
1 teaspoon (6 gm) pink salt
1 teaspoon.(1 gm) dried thyme
½ teaspoon (2 gm) ground mace
½ teaspoon (2 gm) ground cloves
½ teaspoon (2 gm) ground allspice
¾ teaspoon (3 gm) Coleman’s dry mustard
1 cup (240 ml) (140 gm) (5 oz) diced onion
1 tablespoon (15 gm) (½ oz) minced garlic
10 feet/3 meters hog casings, soaked in tepid water for a least 30 minutes and rinse

Directions:
1Combine all the ingredients and toss to mix thoroughly. Chill until ready to grind
2Grind mixture through the small die of your meat grinder in a bowl set in ice.
3Mix with paddle attachment or spoon for about a minute until meat has sticky appearance.
4Fry a bite size portion of the sausage and taste it – refrigerate your meat mixture while you do this – and adjust seasonings as necessary
5Stuff sausage into the hog casings and twist into 6-inch/15-centimeter links.
6Hang sausages on a smoke stick and let dry for 1 to 2 hours a to room temperature or in the refrigerator to develop the pellicle.
7Hot smoke sausages at a temperature of 180°F/82 °C to an internal temperature of 150°F/65°C. Transfer to ice bath to chill thoroughly, then refrigerate.
8Refrigerate sausages up to 2 weeks or freeze until ready to use.

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Shrimp and Cheesy Grits with Hot Smoked Andouille Sausage

Andouille Sausage – Cold Smoked
345Recipe Source: Charcuterie
Preparation Time: 1-2 hours to make, chill overnight, 2-4 hours to cold smoke, 2-3 days to hang.
Equipment Needed: Large Bowls, Measuring Cups and Spoons, Meat Grinder or Food Processor, Wooden Spoon, Frying Pan, Sausage Stuffer, a way to cold smoke (like a grill), a place/apparatus to hang.

Ingredients
5 lbs (2¼ kg) boneless fatty pork shoulder butt, diced
3 cups (720 ml) (450 gm) (1 lb) yellow or white onion diced
2 tablespoons (30 ml) (6 gm) minced garlic
3 tablespoons (45 ml) (45 gm) (1½ oz) kosher (rock crystal) salt
1 teaspoon (6 gm) pink salt
½ teaspoon (2 gm) dried thyme
¾ teaspoon (2 gm) ground mace
1/8 teaspoon (½ gm) ground cloves
¾ teaspoon (2 gm) ground allspice
¾ teaspoon (2 gm) ground marjoram
½ cup (120 ml) (70 gm) nonfat milk powder
20 feet/6 meter sheep casings, soaked in tepid water for at least 30 minutes and rinsed

Directions:
1Combine all the ingredients and toss to mix thoroughly. Chill until ready to grind
2Grind mixture through the small die of your meat grinder in a bowl set in ice.
3Mix with paddle attachment or spoon for about a minute until meat has sticky appearance.
4Fry a bite size portion of the sausage and taste it – refrigerate your meat mixture while you do this – and adjust seasonings as necessary
5Stuff sausage into the sheep casings and twist into 10-inch/25 centimeter links. Refrigerate uncovered overnight to develop pellicle.
6Cold smoke sausages at a temperature of below 100°F/ 37°C. for 2 to 4 hours or until golden brown.
7Hang sausages in a cool, dry space (60°F/15°C with 65 percent humidity is ideal) for 2 to 3 days.
8Refrigerate sausages up to 2 weeks or freeze until ready to use.

Frankfurters:
Frankfurters 6
Servings: Makes 2 pounds
Recipe source: Home Sausage Making
Prep Time: 2 hours to make, 20 minutes to parboil, 1-4 hours to chill, plus cooking time
Equipment needed: 2 Large Bowls, Small Bowl to measure seasonings, Measuring spoons, Food processor or spice grinder, Meat grinder, meat grinder attachment, or food processor, Sharp Knife, Large pot

Ingredients
1 tablespoon (15 ml) white vinegar, for soaking the casings only
3 feet (1 metre) sheep or small hog casing
1 pound (450 gm) lean pork
¾ pound (350 gm) lean beef
¼ pound (110 gm) pork fat
1 teaspoon (5ml) (4 gm) ground coriander
1 teaspoon (4 gm) sweet paprika
½ teaspoon (2 gm) ground mustard seed
¼ teaspoon (1 gm) ground mace
¼ teaspoon (1 gm) ground marjoram
¼ cup (60ml) (40 gm) (1½ oz) finely minced onion
1 small garlic clove, minced
1½ teaspoons (7 gm) sugar
1 tablespoon (15 ml) (15 gm) (½ oz) kosher or course ground salt
1 teaspoon (4 gm) ground white pepper
1 egg white
¼ cup (60 ml) milk

Directions:
1. Prepare your casings. (See note above)
2. Cut the pork, beef and fat into 1inch (2½ cm) cubes and place in the freezer for 30 minutes to firm them.
3. In a food processor of spice grinder, combine the coriander, paprika, mustard seed, mace, marjoram, onion and garlic and puree until smooth. Add the sugar, salt, pepper egg white and milk. Mix thoroughly.
4. Grind the pork, beef, and fat separately through the fine dish of the meat grinder. Mix together and then freeze for 30 minutes.
5. Grind the meat again.
6. In a large bowl, mix the seasonings into the meat by hand (mixing by hand gives a better finished texture to the sausage). You want your mixture to be firm but not dry. Wet your hands with cold water if the meat mixture becomes too sticky, but be careful not to soak your hands – you don’t want the mixture to get too wet. (At this time I recommend taking a small portion of the sausage and quickly fry it up, to taste how strong the seasonings are. If you feel you need to make an adjustment, make it now.
7. Freeze the meat a third time, again for 30 minutes.
8. Prepare the sausage stuffer. Wet the end of the funnel and draw the casing over the funnel so that the entire length is gathered onto the funnel and the end of the casing is even with the funnel opening.
9. Push the ground meat mixture through the funnel or feed spout with the end of a wooden spoon until it reaches the end of the funnel opening. Pull about 2 inches (5 cm) of casing off the end of the funnel and tie it into a knot.
10. Feed small amounts of the meat mixture through the funnel at a time, continuing to stuff the entire casing. Pack the casing firmly but not to the bursting point, maintaining an even thickness throughout the length of the casing. When all the meat has been used up, slide any extra casing off the funnel. Do not twist off links yet!
11. Look for any air pockets in the sausage and prick with a sharp knife.
12. Starting at the end of the casing, start making 6-inch (15 cm) links and twisting 2 or 3 times in one direction to form a link. Move down the sausage another 6 inches (15 cm) and twist 2 or 3 times in the opposite direction as you twisted the first link. Continue until the entire length has been twisted into links. Do not cut the links apart.
13. Bring a large pot of water to gently simmer. Add the links and parboil in gently simmering water for 20 minutes.
14. Drain the franks, then dunk them into ice water to chill thoroughly.
15. Remove the franks from the water, pat them dry with paper towels. Using a sharp knife, you may separate the links from each other by quickly cutting through each twisted section.
16. Refrigerate until ready to eat, then warm through (on the grill, in the skillet, however you want). The flavors will be best if you allow to sit in the refrigerator at least up to 4 hours, and even better overnight.

Storage:
Frankfurters are best stored in a single layer on a platter, covered with plastic wrap and refrigerated. Because they are pre-cooked, frankfurters may be refrigerated up to 1 week, or they may be frozen for up to 2 months. Reheat until warmed through.

Apple Tofu Sausage:
Apple Tofu Sausage 4
Servings: 10-12 sausages
Recipe source: Home Sausage Making
Prep Time: 30 minutes to assemble, 1 hour to refrigerate, 15 minutes to bake
Equipment needed: Medium sized skillet, sharp knife, Box grater, Wooden Spoon, Large Plate, Oven, Baking Sheet

Ingredients
2 teaspoons (10ml) vegetable oil
½ cup (60 ml) (75 gm) (2½ oz) chopped onions
2 tart apples peeled, grated and tossed with 1 teaspoon (5 ml) Lemon Juice
1 pound (450 gm) Extra Firm Tofu, drained
1 cup (240ml) (60 gm) (2 oz) fresh breadcrumbs
1½ teaspoons (6 gm) dried sage
1 teaspoon (5 ml) (3 gm) kosher or coarse salt
½ teaspoon (2 gm) ground allspice
½ teaspoon (2 gm) freshly grated nutmeg
½ teaspoon (2 gm) black pepper
¼ teaspoon (1 gm) ground ginger
2 large egg whites

Directions:

1. Heat the oil in a medium skillet over medium-high heat. Add the apples and onion and saute until softened, about 3 minutes.
2. Add the grated apples and saute for 3 minutes longer. Transfer the mixture to a large bowl to cool.
3. Crumble or grate the tofu into the bowl and toss to combine with the onion/apple mixture.
4. Add the breadcrumbs, sage, salt, allspice, nutmeg, pepper, ginger and egg whites. Mix together well.
5. With wet hands, form ½ cup of the mixture into ½-inch (1 cm) thick patties or 3-inch (7½ cm) long sausage shapes and arrange on a large plate. Refrigerate 1 hour, or until firm.

6. To cook, preheat the oven to hot 450°F/230°C/gas mark 8. Grease a baking sheet, and arrange the sausages on the sheet. Bake 10-15 minutes, until the outsides are golden brown and the insides are cooked through and firm.
Salumi

Basic Salami
Recipe source: Salumi
Prep Time: 40 minutes
Equipment needed: Bowls, Stand Mixer, Meat Grinder, Sausage Stuffer, Digital Scale, Butcher’s Twine

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This technique can be used for any dry-cured sausage. It uses salt in the amount of 2.75% of the weight of the meat and fat, and it uses sodium nitrate (DQ Curing Salt#2) in the amount of 0.25% of the weight of the meat and fat. If you want to scale the recipe up or down, use the same percentages. Additional fat is added to the shoulder butt in the amount of 15% to 25% of the weight of the shoulder butt.

The mixture can be stuffed into any size casing; the smaller the casing the easier it will be to dry successfully. For most cured sausage, beef middle, which are 2 inches/5 centimeters in diameter, cut into 18-inch/45 centimeter lengths are the norm. All are tied in a bubble knot, which prevents slippage out of the string while hanging.

Ingredients
4 lbs/1800 grams fatty pork shoulder butt, cut into a large dice, sinews and glands removed, and chilled to very cold
1 lb/450 grams pork back fat, cut into a large dice
4 tablespoons (60 ml) (60 gm) (2 oz) kosher or sea salt
1 teaspoon (5 ml) (7 gm) DQ Curing Salt#2
2 teaspoons (4 gm) black peppercorns, toasted and finely ground
¼ cup (60 ml) chilled dry red wine
1 teablespoon (15 ml) (12 gm) Bactoferm (live starter culture)
2 tablespoons (30 ml) distilled water
2 18-inch/45-centimeter length beef middle* (hog casings are ok too), soaked in tepid water for at least 20 minutes and rinsed

Directions:
1.Partially freeze meat and fat.
2.Combine the meat, salt, curing salt and black pepper and grind through a large die (3/8-inch/9-millimeter) into a large bowl. Grind Fat into bowl.
3.Using paddle attachment mix ground meat and fat, adding wine. Refrigerate the mixture in the bowl for 30 minutes.
4.Dissolve the Bactoferm in distilled water and using the paddle attachment on the stand mixer, blend with the meat and fat until well distributed.
5.Tie one end of the casing using a bubble knot. Stuff the sausage into the casing and tie each off using another bubble knot.

*Note: Beef middle is the term for beef casings.

6.Using a clean needle, or sausage pricker, poke holes all over the sausage, especially where there may be air pockets.
7.Weigh sausage and record results
8.Allow sausages to incubate for 12 hours in a warm place – ideally 80°F/ 27°C. and 80% humidity,
9.Hang sausages in a dry, cool place.
10.The salami are ready when they have lost 30 percent of their raw weight
11.Slice into the salami. It should be firm all the way through with an appealing deep red color and white dots of fat. If there a ring of dark meat, surrounding a mushy interior, you have a case-hardening issue. Smell it. It should smell like salami. If it looks good, if it smells good, taste it – it should be delicious. Enjoy!

334
Antipasto with Salami

Whole Muscle Curing

Pancetta Arrotolota

Servings: 7lb. Tenderloin
Recipe source: Salumi
Prep Time: 15 minutes
Equipment needed: Bowls, Digital Scale, Non-reactive containers, Zip Lock Bags, Cookie Sheet, 8 lb. weight Cheesecloth, Butcher’s Twine

For rolled Pancetta, the drying time is not critical. You can slice and cook pancetta immediately after it is cured. The hanging time (5-7days), though, will deepen and enhance the flavor. If you want to be able to slice your pancetta very thin and serve it as is, then you should dry it as you would any muscle, until its lost 30 percent of its weight.

Ingredients

The Cure
5 ounces (140 gm) kosher salt or seal salt – or 3% of the weight of the meat
2 teaspoons (12 gm) pink salt
3 tablespoons (45 ml) (18 gm) (2/3 oz) black peppercorns, toasted and roughly cracked in a mortar and pestle
¼ cup (50 gm) (1¾ oz) packed brown sugar
¼ cup (20 gm) juniper berries, crushed
8 garlic cloves, minced
8 bay leaves
10 thyme sprigs
10 lb (4½ kg) fresh pork belly, skin on
¼ cup (60 ml) (50 gm) (1¾ oz) finely ground pepper

Directions:
1.Combine the cure ingredients in a nonreactive container large enough to hold the pork belly flat – a zip lock bag works well.

2.Add belly and rub cure all over.
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3.Refrigerate for 5 days, flipping the meat and re-rubbing it to redistribute the cure at least once, midway through the cure

4.Remove belly from cure and rinse off the ingredients under cold water
5.You can use it immediately for cooking.
6.Or if using weight to determine doneness, weigh the meat – record the results. Dust the belly with black pepper, roll belly as tightly as possible and tie using the continuous tie method – see here.
7.Hang belly in a cool, dark place 55-60°F/13-18°C for 2 to 3 weeks.
087

297
Fresh Pasta with tossed with Tomato and Pancetta

Pepper-cured Lonza
044Recipe source: Salumi
Prep Time: 15 minutes
Equipment needed: Bowls, Digital Scale, Non reactive containers, Zip Lock Bags, Cookie Sheet, 8 lb. weight Cheesecloth, Butcher’s Twine

Ingredients
Boneless pork loin, heavy sinew removed (with some back fat left on if you wish)

The Cure
Coarse kosher salt or sea salt
Black Peppercorn, toasted and roughly cracked in a mortar with a pestle
Black Peppercorn, toasted and finely ground

Directions:
1.Combine the cure ingredients in a pan large enough to hold the loin and roll the loin in the cure to coat uniformly.
052
2.Put loin in a zip lock bag and squeeze as much air out of the bag.
3.Put loin on a baking sheet and put another pan on top and weigh it down with 8 pounds/3600 grams of weighs. Refrigerate for 1 day per 2 pounds/1000 grams.

4.Midway through the curing time, flip loin, to redistribute the cure and weigh it down again
5.Remove the loin from the bag, rinse with cold water, pat dry.
6.Weigh loin and record results.
7.Tie the loin as you would a roast – hang to dry for 3 to 4 weeks or until it has lost 30 percent of its weight.

Duck Prosciutto
021Recipe source: Salumi
Prep Time: 15 minutes
Equipment needed: Bowls, Digital Scale, Non-reactive containers, Zip Lock Bags, Cookie Sheet, 8 lb. weight Cheesecloth, Butcher’s Twine

Ingredients

The Cure
½ teaspoon (3 gm) pink salt
½ teaspoon (1 gm) finely ground dried bay leave
½ teaspoon (1 gm) finely ground dried thyme
4 juniper berries, crushed
5 black peppercorns, crushed
1 garlic clove, sliced paper thin
Coarse Sea Salt or Kosher Salt
1 whole duck breast, split, silver skin removed

Directions:
1Combine the pink salt, bay leaves, thyme, juniper berries and pepper in a small bowl and whisk together.
2Rub breast with garlic and then dust with seasoning mixture

3Put breasts in a nonreactive pan, just large enough to hold them and add enough salt to completely encase them, refrigerate for 24 hours
4Remove breasts from cure and rinse under cold water – pat dry.
5Wrap breasts in cheesecloth and hang to dry in a cool, dark place for 1 to 3 weeks or until they feel firm not hard.

6Refrigerate overnight before slicing thinly to serve.

287
Grilled Pizza with Duck Prosciutto

Additional Information:

Sources for Pink Salt, Bactoferm and Casings in the US (and they will ship to Canada):
www.thesausagemaker.com or www.butcherpacker.com – also check with your local kitchen supply/cooking store.
Video on making sausage – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uM5KaY5eKjI
Video on making sausage – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RPQP4TC3E1w
This is a good video on cold smoking in a gas grill – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9lxYTRVXuuE
An interesting read on the history of sausages: http://www.sausageobsession.com/history_of_sausage/

Disclaimer:
The Daring Kitchen and its members in no way suggest we are medical professionals and therefore are NOT responsible for any error in reporting of “alternate baking/cooking”. If you have issues with digesting gluten, then it is YOUR responsibility to research the ingredient before using it. If you have allergies, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. If you are lactose intolerant, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. If you are vegetarian or vegan, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. The responsibility is YOURS regardless of what health issue you’re dealing with. Please consult your physician with any questions before using an ingredient you are not familiar with. Thank you! Smile

Poisonive
Redfilly01
Salumi: The Craft of Italian Dry Curing
Michael Ruhlman and Brian Polcyn

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